How low self-esteem people think, feel, and behave

socially anxious boy

Self-esteem is one of those topics that gets mentioned a lot. Everyone who uses the term has some idea of what it means. However, if you ask them to elaborate on it, they flail and hesitate, giving you the “it-is-what-it-is” look. Truth is, there are some misconceptions about self-esteem out there. Low self-esteem, in particular, …

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Enmeshment: Definition, causes, & effects


Enmeshment is a family pattern in which there are no psychological boundaries between the family members. Hence, the family members seem psychologically fused together or enmeshed. The enmeshed family members seem to have no separate identities. Instead, identify with each other and seem to live each other’s lives. The enmeshed family members are overly involved …

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Metacommunication: Definition, examples, and types

monkeys playfighting

Metacommunication can be defined as ‘communication about communication’.1 In its simplest form, the communication process involves a sender who sends a message to a receiver. Think of receiving communication as buying a new gadget. The store owner is the sender, the gadget is the message, and you’re the receiver. If the store owner simply hands …

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Liminal space: Definition, examples, and psychology


A liminal space is a space between spaces. A liminal space is a boundary between two points in time, space, or both. It’s the middle ground between two grounds, the mid-structure between two structures. When you’re in a liminal space, you’re neither here nor there, neither this nor that. At the same time, you’re both …

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Types of memory in psychology (Explained)

autobiographical memory

Memory in psychology is defined as the persistence of learning. You can learn, recognize, and recall information. This shows your mind has an in-built storage system for information. In this article, I’ll briefly discuss the types of memory in psychology. Then, I’ll explain them in detail in the next sections. Types of memory in psychology …

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Learning by conditioning in psychology

Ivan Pavlov picture

Classical and operant conditioning are two basic psychological processes involved in learning by conditioning that explain how humans and other animals learn. The fundamental concept that underlies both these modes of learning is association. Simply put, our brains are associating machines. We associate things with each other so that we can learn about our world …

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Cognitive Behavioral Theory (Explained)


“Men are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them.” – Epictetus The above quote captures the essence of Cognitive Behavioural Theory (CBT). Cognition refers to thinking. Cognitive Behavioural Theory talks about how cognition shapes behaviour and vice versa. There’s a third component to the theory- feelings. CBT explains how …

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Attribution theory in psychology (Complete guide)


Do you know what’s the single biggest factor causing problems in otherwise relationships? It’s a phenomenon called fundamental attribution error based on a Social Psychology theory called Attribution Theory. Sam: What’s the matter with you?Rita: It took you an hour to text me back. Do you even like me anymore?Sam: What?? I was in a …

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Gaslighting someone (Ultimate guide)

what is gaslighting

Gaslighting someone means manipulating their perception of reality so that they begin to question their own sanity. The manipulation is so effective that a person being gaslighted comes to doubt their ability to perceive reality and recall events from memory accurately. Simply put, person A perceives something about person B who denies it and accuses …

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5 Different types of dissociation

This article will explore what dissociation means in psychology and then briefly go over the different types of dissociation. Lastly, we’ll touch on the connection between dissociation and trauma. Imagine how people react when tragedy strikes, be it a death in the family, a natural disaster, a terror attack, anything. Let’s take the example of …

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