Classical and operant conditioning

Ivan Pavlov picture

Classical and operant conditioning are two basic psychological processes that explain how humans and other animals learn. The fundamental concept that underlies both these modes of learning is association. Simply put, our brains are associating machines. We associate things with each other so that we can learn about our world and make better decisions. If …

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How to overcome loneliness

lonely guy

I frequently come across social media posts by people asking how to overcome loneliness. So I decided to finally tackle this topic. Loneliness is an emotional state that one experiences when they perceive themselves to be isolated from other people. Loneliness is painful and the person experiencing loneliness often shows signs of depression. However, loneliness …

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Emotional appeal in advertising: Why it works

emotional appeal in marketing and advertising

Advertisements generally have two kinds of appeal- rational appeal and emotional appeal. Using rational appeal in advertising means giving your target audience a logical reason to buy from you. Using emotional appeal in advertising involves creating an emotional connection between your brand and your target audience. An advertisement- any advertisement- is an offer made by …

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Cognitive Behavioural Theory explained


“Men are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them.” – Epictetus The above quote captures the essence of Cognitive Behavioural Theory (CBT). Cognition refers to thinking. Cognitive Behavioural Theory talks about how cognition shapes behaviour and vice versa. There’s a third component to the theory- feelings. CBT explains how …

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Attribution theory in psychology (Complete guide)


Do you know what’s the single biggest factor causing problems in otherwise relationships? It’s a phenomenon called fundamental attribution error based on a Social Psychology theory called Attribution Theory. Sam: What’s the matter with you?Rita: It took you an hour to text me back. Do you even like me anymore?Sam: What?? I was in a …

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